2Z101021《二建管理》项目结构分析在项目管理中的应用

2Z101021项目结构分析在项目管理中的应用

【考点】组织工具——四图两表(必会)
(1)项目结构图;
(2)组织结构图;
(3)合同结构图;
(4)工作任务分工表;
(5)管理职能分工表;
(6)工作流程图等。

其中,项目结构图、组织结构图、合同结构图是最重要的三大组织工具。

(一)项目结构图
1.项目结构图(WBS):以树状图的形式——将项目逐层分解——矩形框代表工作任务——用连线连接矩形框,项目结构图反应所有的工作任务。
2.项目结构分解并没有统一的模式,应结合项目的特点并参考以下原则进行:
(1)考虑项目进展的总体部署; (不考虑施工)
(2)考虑项目的组成;
(3)有利于项目实施任务(设计、施工和物资采购)的发包和有利于项目实施任务的进行,并结合合同结构的特点;
(4)有利于项目目标的控制;
(5)结合项目管理的组织结构的特点等。

单体工程如有必要(如投资、进度和质量控制的需要)也应进行项目结构分解。
【提示】项目结构图的含义关键词,树状图-逐层分解-所有工作任务,矩形框之间用连线连接;其分解模式不统一,但有原则。
3.项目结构图的编码
项目结构图和项目结构的编码是编制其他编码(用于投资控制、进度控制、质量控制、合同管理和信息管理等工作编码)的基础。

【习题演练】
【例题1·多选】关于项目结构分解的说法,正确的有( )。
A.项目结构图通过树状图的方式对一个项目的结构进行逐层分解
B.项目结构图能够反映组成该项目的所有工作任务
C.同一个建设工程项目只能有一个项目结构分解方法
D.项目结构的分解应和整个工程实施的部署相结合,并和将采用的合同结构相结合
E.项目结构分解考虑到项目进展的总体部署,采用统一的模式
【答案】ABD
【解析】C正确说法同一个项目可以有多个项目结构分解方法。E项目结构分解并没有统一的模式,但应结合项目的特点并参考以下原则进行:(1)考虑项目进展的总体部署;(2)考虑项目的组成;(3)有利于项目实施任务(设计、施工和物资采购)的发包和有利于项目进行,并结合合同结构;(4)有利于项目目标的控制;(5)结合项目管理的组织结构等。

【例题2·单选】编制项目合同的基础是()。【2015】
A.项目合同文本和项目结构图
B.项目结构图和项目结构编码
C.项目结构编码和项目组织结构图
D.项目合同文本和项目组织结构图
【答案】B
【解析】项目结构的编码依据项目结构图,对项目结构的每一层的每一个组成部分进行编码。项目结构的编码和用于投资控制、进度控制、质量控制、合同管理和信息管理等管理工作的编码有紧密的有机联系,但它们之间又有区别。项目结构图和项目结构的编码是编制上述其他编码的基础。

【例题3·多选】关于建设工程项目结构分解的说法正确的有()。【2018】
A.项目结构分解应结合项目进展的总体部署
B.项目结构分解应结合项目合同结构的特点
C.每一个项目只能有一种项目结构分解方法
D.项目结构分解应结合项目组织结构的特点
E.单体项目也可进行项目结构分解
【答案】ABDE
【解析】项目结构分解并没有统一的模式,但应结合项目的特点并参考以下原则进行:
(1)考虑项目进展的总体部署;
(2)考虑项目的组成;
(3)有利于项目实施任务(设计、施工和物资采购)的发包和有利于项目实施任务的进行,并结合合同结构的特点;
(4)有利于项目目标的控制;
(5)结合项目管理的组织结构的特点等。单体工程如有必要(如投资、进度和质量控制的需要)也应进行项目结构分解。

(二)组织结构图
1.组织结构图:矩形框代表各工作部门——用单向箭线连接矩形框——表达指令关系。
2.三种组织结构模式:
(1)职能组织结构:有多个指令源,易产生矛盾(适用于中小型企业)。
(2)线性组织结构:有单个指令源、指令路径过长易失真(中小型企业)。
(3)矩阵组织结构:有两个指令源(适用于大型企业)。

【习题演练】
【例题1·单选】某施工企业采用矩阵组织结构模式,其横向工作部门可以是()。【2018】
A.合同管理部
B.计划管理部
C.财务管理部
D.项目管理部
【答案】D
【解析】一个施工企业,如采用矩阵组织结构模式,则纵向工作部门可以是计划管理、技术管理、合同管理、财务管理和人事管理部门等,而横向工作部门可以是项目部。故答案为D。

【例题3·单选】关于线性组织结构的说法,错误的是()。【2014】
A.每个工作部门的指令源是唯一的
B.高组织层次部门可以向任何低组织层次下达指令
C.在特大组织系统中,指令路径会很长
D.可以避免相互矛盾的指令影响系统运行
【答案】B
【解析】本题考查线性组织结构的特点及其应用。在线性组织结构中,每一个工作部门只能对其直接的下属部门下达工作指令,每一个工作部门也只有一个直接的上级部门,因此,每一个工作部门只有唯一一个指令源,但在一个特大的组织系统中,由于线性组织结构模式的指令路径过长,有可能会造成组织系统在一定程度上运行的困难。

(三)合同结构图
合同结构图——矩形框代表各参与方——用双向箭线连接矩形框——表达合同关系。

【习题演练】
【例题1·单选】建设工程施工管理中的组织结构图反映的是()。
A.一个项目管理班子中各组成部门之间的逻辑关系
B.一个项目中各组成部分之间的组织关系
C.一个组织系统中各组成部门之间的组织关系
D.一个项目中各组成部分之间的逻辑关系
【答案】C
【解析】组织结构图是一个重要的组织工具,反映一个组织系统中各组成部门(组成元素)之间的组织关系(指令关系)。

【例题2·多选】关于项目结构图和组织结构图的说法,正确的有()。
A.项目结构图中,矩形框表示工作任务
B.项目结构图中,用双向箭线连接矩形框
C.组织结构图中,用直线连接矩形框
D.组织结构图中,矩形框表示工作部门
E.项目结构图和组织结构图都是组织工具
【答案】ADE
【解析】项目结构图中,矩形框表示工作任务,矩形框之间的连接用连线表示;在组织结构图中,矩形框表示工作部门,上级工作部门对其直接下属工作部门的指令关系用单向箭线表示;组织论的三个重要的组织工具——项目结构图、组织结构图和合同结构图。

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