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剪力墙——钢筋算量基本方法小结

剪力墙 
在钢筋工程量计算中剪力墙是最难计算的构件,具体体现在:
1、剪力墙包括墙身、墙梁、墙柱、洞口,必须要整考虑它们的关系; 
2、剪力墙在平面上有直角、丁字角、十字角、斜交角等各种转角形式; 
3、剪力墙在立面上有各种洞口; 4、墙身钢筋可能有单排、双排、多排,且可能每排钢筋不同; 
5、墙柱有各种箍筋组合; 
6、连梁要区分顶层与中间层,依据洞口的位置不同还有不同的计算方法。 (一)剪力墙墙身 
一、剪力墙墙身水平钢筋 
1、墙端为暗柱时 
A、外侧钢筋连续通过外侧钢筋长度=墙长-保护层内侧钢筋=墙长-保护层+弯折 
B、外侧钢筋不连续通过外侧钢筋长度=墙长-保护层+0.65Lae 
      内侧钢筋长度=墙长-保护层+弯折
      水平钢筋根数=层高/间距+1(暗梁、连梁墙身水平筋照设) 
2、墙端为端柱时 
A、外侧钢筋连续通过外侧钢筋长度=墙长-保护层内侧钢筋=墙净长+锚固长度(弯锚、直锚) 
B、外侧钢筋不连续通过外侧钢筋长度=墙长-保护层+0.65Lae内侧钢筋长度=墙净长+锚固长度(弯锚、直锚)水平钢筋根数=层高/间距+1(暗梁、连梁墙身水平筋照设)注意:如果剪力墙存在多排垂直筋和水平钢筋时,其中间水平钢筋在拐角处的锚固措施同该墙的内侧水平筋的锚固构造。 
3、剪力墙墙身有洞口时当剪力墙墙身有洞口时,墙身水平筋在洞口左右两边截断,分别向下弯折15d

二、剪力墙墙身竖向钢筋 
1、首层墙身纵筋长度=基础插筋+首层层高+伸入上层的搭接长度 
2、中间层墙身纵筋长度=本层层高+伸入上层的搭接长度 
3、顶层墙身纵筋长度=层净高+顶层锚固长度墙身竖向钢筋根数=墙净长/间距+1(墙身竖向钢筋从暗柱、端柱边50mm开始布置) 
4、剪力墙墙身有洞口时,墙身竖向筋在洞口上下两边截断,分别横向弯折15d。 
三、墙身拉筋 
1、长度=墙厚-保护层+弯钩(弯钩长度=11.9+2*D) 
2、根数=墙净面积/拉筋的布置面积
注:墙净面积是指要扣除暗(端)柱、暗(连)梁,即墙面积-门洞总面积-暗柱剖面积- 暗梁面积;拉筋的面筋面积是指其横向间距×竖向间距。例:(8000*3840)/(600*600)
(二)剪力墙墙柱 
一、纵筋 
1、首层墙柱纵筋长度=基础插筋+首层层高+伸入上层的搭接长度 
2、中间层墙柱纵筋长度=本层层高+伸入上层的搭接长度 
3、顶层墙柱纵筋长度=层净高+顶层锚固长度注意:如果是端柱,顶层锚固要区分边、中、角柱,要区分外侧钢筋和内侧钢筋。因为端柱可以看作是框架柱,所以其锚固也同框架柱相同。 
二、箍筋:依据设计图纸自由组合计算。

(三)剪力墙墙梁 
一、连梁 
1、受力主筋顶层连梁主筋长度=洞口宽度+左右两边锚固值LaE中间层连梁纵筋长度=洞口宽度+左右两边锚固值LaE 
2、箍筋顶层连梁,纵筋长度范围内均布置箍即N=((LaE-100)/150+1)*2+(洞口宽-50*2)/间距+1(顶层)中间层连梁,洞口范围内布置箍筋,洞口两边再各加一根即N=(洞口宽-50*2)/间距+1(中间层)

二、暗梁 
主筋长度=暗梁净长+锚固 

三、柱 
(一)、基础层 
一、柱主筋基础插筋=基础底板厚度-保护层+伸入上层的钢筋长度+Max{10D,200mm} 
二、基础内箍筋基础内箍筋的作用仅起一个稳固作用,也可以说是防止钢筋在浇注时受到挠动。一般是按2根进行计算(软件中是按三根)。 
(二)、中间层
一、柱纵筋 
1、KZ中间层的纵向钢筋=层高-当前层伸出地面的高度+上一层伸出楼地面的高度 
二、柱箍筋 
KZ中间层的箍筋根数=N个加密区/加密区间距+N+非加密区/非加密区间距-103G101-1中,关于柱箍筋的加密区的规定如下 
1)首层柱箍筋的加密区有三个,分别为:下部的箍筋加密区长度取Hn/3;上部取Max{500柱长边尺寸,Hn/6};梁节点范围内加密;如果该柱采用绑扎搭接,那么搭接范围内同时需要加密。 
2)首层以上柱箍筋分别为:上、下部的箍筋加密区长度均取Max{500,柱长边尺寸,Hn/6};梁节点范围内加密;如果该柱采用绑扎搭接,那么搭接范围内同时需要加密。 
(三)、顶层顶层KZ因其所处位置不同,分为角柱、边柱和中柱,也因此各种柱纵筋的顶层锚固各不相同。(参看03G101-1第37、38页)

角柱角柱顶层纵筋长度: 
1、内筋a、内侧钢筋锚固长度为:弯锚(≦Lae):梁高-保护层+12d直锚(≧Lae):梁高-保护层 
2、外筋b、外侧钢筋锚固长度为外侧钢筋锚固长度=Max{1.5Lae,梁高-保护层+柱宽-保护层}柱顶部第一层:≧梁高-保护层+柱宽-保护层+8d(保证65%伸入梁内)柱顶部第二层:≧梁高-保护层+柱宽-保护层注意:在GGJ V8.1中,内侧钢筋锚固长度为弯锚(≦Lae):梁高-保护层+12d 直锚(≧Lae):梁高-保护层外侧钢筋锚固长度=Max{1.5Lae ,梁高-保护层+柱宽-保护层} 
3、边柱边柱顶层纵筋长度=层净高Hn+顶层钢筋锚固值,那么边柱顶层钢筋锚固值是如何考虑的呢?边柱顶层纵筋的锚固分为内侧钢筋锚固和外侧钢筋锚固: 
a、内侧钢筋锚固长度为 弯锚(≦Lae):梁高-保护层+12d直锚(≧Lae):梁高-保护层 
b、外侧钢筋锚固长度为:≧1.5Lae注意:在GGJ V8.1中,内侧钢筋锚固长度为弯锚(≦Lae):梁高-保护层+12d 直锚(≧Lae):梁高-保护层外侧钢筋锚固长度=Max{1.5Lae ,梁高-保护层+柱宽-保护层}三、中柱中柱顶层纵筋长度=层净高Hn+顶层钢筋锚固值,那么中柱顶层钢筋锚固值是如何考虑的呢?中柱顶层纵筋的锚固长度为弯锚(≦Lae):梁高-保护层+12d直锚(≧Lae):梁高-保护层注意:在GGJ V8.1中,处理同上。

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