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地砖施工技术交底

一、 施工准备
(一) 作业条件
1、 墙上四周弹好+0.5m水平控制线。
2、 地面防水层已经做完,室内墙面润湿作业已经做完。
3、 穿楼地面的管洞已经堵严塞实。
4、 楼地面垫层已经做完。
5、 板块应预先用水浸湿,并码放好,铺时达到表面无明水。
6、 复杂的地面施工前,应绘制施工大样图,并做出样板间,经检查合格后,方可大面积施工。
(二) 材料要求
1、 水泥:32.5级以上普通硅酸盐水泥或矿渣硅酸盐水泥。
2、 砂:粗砂或中砂,含泥量不大于3%,过8mm孔径的筛子。
3、 面砖:进场验收合格后,在施工前应进行挑选,将有质量缺陷的先剔除,然后将面砖按大中小三类挑选后分别码放在垫木上。色号不同的严禁混用,选砖用木条钉方框模子,拆包后块块进行套选,长、宽、厚不得超过±lmm,平整度用直尺检查。
(三) 施工机具
小水桶、半截桶、笤帚、方尺、平锹、铁抹子、大杠、筛子、窄手推车、钢丝刷、喷壶、橡皮锤、小线、云石机、水平尺等。
二、 质量要求
质量要求符合《建筑地面工程施工质量验收规范》(GB50209-2002)的规定。

备注:一块踏步板粘贴完后,水平高度误差3.00mm,垂直高度误差1.5mm

三、 工艺流程
基层处理→找标高、弹线→铺找平层→弹铺砖控制线→铺砖→勾缝、擦缝→养护→踢脚板安装
四、 操作工艺
(一) 基层处理、定标高
1、 将基层表面的浮土或砂浆铲掉,清扫干净,有油污时,应用10%火碱水刷净,并用清水冲洗干净。
2、 根据+0.5m水平控制线和设计图纸找出板面标高。
(二) 弹控制线
1、 先根据排砖图确定铺砌的缝隙宽度。
2、 根据排砖图及缝宽在地面上弹纵、横控制线。注意该十字线与墙面抹灰时控制房间方正的十字线是否对应平行,同时注意开间方向的控制线是否与走廊的纵向控制线平行,不平行时应调整至平行。以避免在门口位置的分色砖出现大小头。
注:排砖原则:
① 开间方向要对称(垂直门口方向分中);
② 破活尽量排在远离门口及隐蔽处,如:暖气罩下面;
③ 为了排整砖,可以用分色砖调整;
④ 与走廊的砖缝尽量对上,对不上时可以在门口处用分色砖分隔;
⑤ 根据排砖原则画出排砖图,有地漏的房间应注意坡度、坡向。
(三) 铺砖
为了找好位置和标离,应从门口开始,纵向先铺2~3行砖,以此为标筋拉纵横水平标高线,铺时应从里面向外退着操作,人不得踏在刚铺好的砖面上,每块砖应跟线,操作程序是:
1、 铺砌前将砖板块放入半截水桶中浸水润湿,晾干后表面无明水时,方可使用。
2、 找平层上洒水润湿,均匀涂刷素水泥浆(水灰比为0.4~0.5)涂刷面积不要过大,铺多少刷多少;
3、 结合层的厚度:一般采用水泥砂浆结合层,厚度为10~25mm;铺设厚度以放上面砖时高出面层标高线3~4mm为宜,铺好后用大杠尺刮平,再用抹子拍实找平(铺设面积不得过大)。
4、 结合层拌和:干硬性砂浆,配合比为1:3(体积比),应随拌随用,初凝前用完,防止影响粘结质量。干硬性程度以手捏成团,落地即散为宜。
5、 铺贴时,砖的背面朝上抹粘结砂浆,铺砌到已刷好的水泥浆:找平层上,砖上楞略高出水平标高线,找正、找直、找方后,砖上面垫木板,用橡皮锤拍实,顺序从内退着往外铺贴,做到面砖砂浆饱满、相接紧密、结实,与地漏相接处,用云石机将砖加工与地漏相吻合。铺地砖时最好一次铺一间,大面积施工时,应采取分段、分部位铺贴。
6、 拨缝、修整:铺完2~3行,应随时拉线检查缝格的平直度,如超出规定应立即修整,将缝拨直,并用橡皮锤拍实。此项工作应在结合层凝结之前完成。
(四) 勾缝、擦缝
面层铺贴应在24h后进行勾缝、擦缝的工作,并应采用同一品种、同强度等级、同颜色的水泥,或用专门的嵌缝材料。
1、 勾缝:用l:l水泥细砂浆勾缝,缝内深度宜为砖厚的1/3,要求缝内砂浆密实、平整、光滑。随勾随将剩余水泥砂浆清走、擦净。
2、 擦缝:如设计要求缝隙很小时,则要求接缝平直,在铺实修好的面层上用浆壶往缝内浇水泥浆,然后用干水泥撒在缝上,再用棉纱团擦揉,将缝隙擦满。最后将面层上的水泥浆擦干净。
(五) 养护
铺完砖24h后,洒水养护,时间不应少于7d。
(六) 镶贴踢脚板
踢脚板用砖,一般采用与地面块材同品种、同规格、不同颜色的材料,踢脚板的缝与地面缝形成骑马缝,铺设时应在房间的两端头阴角处各镶贴一块砖,出墙厚度和高度应符合设计要求,以此砖上楞为标准挂线,开始铺贴,砖背面朝上抹粘结砂浆(配合比1:2水泥砂浆),使砂浆粘满整块砖为宜,及时粘贴在墙上,砖上楞要跟线井立即拍实,随之将挤出的砂浆刮撑,将面层清洗干净(在粘贴前,砖块要浸水晒干,墙面刷水润湿)。
五、 成品保护
1、 在铺贴板块操作过程中,对以安装好的门框、管道都要加以保护,如门框钉装保护铁皮,运灰车采用窄车等。
2、 切割地砖时,不得在刚铺贴好的砖面层上操作。
3、 刚铺贴的砂浆抗压强度达1.2MPa时,方可上人进行操作,但必须注意油漆、砂浆不得存放在板块上,铁管等硬器不得碰坏砖面层。喷浆时要对面层进行覆盖保护。
六、 应注意的质量问题
1、 板块空鼓:基层清理不净、洒水湿润不均、砖未浸水、水泥浆结合层刷的面积过大、风干后起隔离作用、上人过早影响粘结层强度等因素都是导致空鼓的原因。
2、 踢脚板空鼓原因,除与地面相同外,还因为踢脚板背面粘结砂浆挤不到边角,造成边角空鼓。
3、 踢脚板出墙厚度不一致:由于墙体抹灰垂直度、平整度超出允许偏差,踢脚板镶贴时按水平线控制,所以出墙厚度不一致。因此在镶贴前,先检查墙面平整度,进行处理后再进行镶贴。
4、 板块表面不洁净:主要是做完面层之后,成品保护不够,油漆桶放在地砖上、在地砖上拌合砂浆、刷浆时不覆盖等,都造成层面被污染。
5、 有地漏的房间倒坡:做找平层砂浆时,没有按设计要求的泛水坡度进行弹线找坡。因此必须在找标高、弹线时找好坡度,抹灰饼和标筋时,抹出泛水。
6、 地面铺贴不平,出现高低差:对地砖未进行预先选挑,砖的厚度不一致造成高低差,或铺贴时未严格按水平标高线进行控制。
7、 地面标高错误:多出现在厕浴间。原因是防水层过厚或结合层过厚。
8、 厕浴间泛水过小或局部倒坡:地漏安装过釜或+0.5m水平控制线不准。

未经允许不得转载:春觉建筑 » 地砖施工技术交底
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