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土方开挖 专项施工方案

第一章 编制依据

  • 建筑、结构施工图纸;
  • 建设单位提供的《xxxxx岩土工程勘察报告》;
  • 吉林省现行国家建筑施工规范、标准:
    • GB50300—2013   建筑工程施工质量验收统一标准
    • GB50202—2002   建筑地基基础工程施工质量验收规范
    • GB50330—2013   建筑边坡工程技术规范
    • JGJ120—2012    建筑基坑支护技术规程
  • 住房和城乡建设部印发的建质[2009]87号令《危险性较大的分部分项工程安全管理办法》
  • 我公司ISO9001质量保证体系及ISO14001环境管理体系的有关文件
  • 我公司历年积累的建筑工程施工的经验资料
  • 根据本工程特点,施工现场环境、自然条件等

第二章 工程概况

  • 工程概述

工程名称:

工程地址: 

建设单位: 

勘察单位:

设计单位;

监理单位:

施工单位: 

  • 设计概况:
    • 建筑概况
建筑物序号建筑物性质建筑物±0.00(m)地上/下层数拟采用结构型式拟采用基础型式备注
X#酒店173.551-6/-1F框架结构浅基础及筏板基础 
       
  • 筏板基础所在土层粉质黏土。自然地面绝对标高为173,基底绝对标高168.05,挖方深度4.95m,预计挖土8500方。

    浅基础所在土层粉质黏土,基地相对标高为-2.7m,以自然地面下返挖方深度3m,预计挖土3500方。

  • 气象概况

德惠市属北温带大陆性季风半湿润气候区,四季分明。受季风影响,春季干燥多风,夏季炎热多雨,秋季温和凉爽,冬季漫长寒冷。历年平均气温4.9℃,平均气温年较差18.2℃;平均日照时数2 432.9小时;平均降水516.4毫米,降水集中在4~9月,7月最多,稳定通过10摄氏度的初终期间降水458毫米;平均初霜日9月20日、终霜日5月3日,无霜日143天。

  • 地质概况

德惠市位于松辽凹陷的东部边缘,是中朝地台的一部分,古生代时期的沉积物较少,局部有二叠纪地层出露,在中生代地台下降,在东部山区有侏罗纪的沉积层。基岩有厚层白垩纪泥岩及砂岩陆相沉积;台地的覆盖层为10~30m左右厚的黏性土层,底部为厚度不等的砂层。

德惠市地处松辽平原中断东南隆起边缘,地势由西南向东北倾斜,地形呈波状起伏。在江河水流切割作用下,形成两个河间台地和三个河谷平原。东南部海拔234米,中西部海拔175米,平均海拔205米。东部是松花江、沐石河河谷平原区;中东部是沐石河与饮马河之间的不均匀上升的低丘陵区;中部是饮马河河谷平原区;西部是饮马河与伊通河之间深切割的高平原区。平原2660.1平方公里,占77.44%,丘陵774.9平方公里,占22.56%。

  • 人工堆积层(Q4ml)

第①层 杂填土:杂色,以黏性土为主,含植物根系及建筑垃圾等,力学性质及稳定性差。该层在拟建场地内分布连续,揭露层厚为0.60~3.00m,层底标高为168.82~174.29m。

  • 第四系沉积层(Q3al)

第②层 粉质黏土:黄褐色,软塑状态,稍有光泽,中压缩性,干强度及韧性中等。该层在拟建场地内分布连续,揭露层厚为0.90~5.20m,层底标高为166.08~171.58m;

第③层 粉质黏土:黄褐色,可塑偏软状态,稍有光泽,中压缩性,干强度及韧性中等。该层在拟建场地内分布连续,揭露层厚为2.00~7.00m,层底标高为162.09~167.24m;

第④层 粉质黏土:黄褐色,可塑状态,稍有光泽,中压缩性,干强度及韧性中等。该层在拟建场地内分布连续,揭露层厚为1.70~6.50m,层底标高为156.93~163.34m;

第⑤层 粉质黏土:黄褐色,可塑偏硬状态,稍有光泽,中压缩性,干强度及韧性中等。该层在拟建场地内分布连续,揭露层厚为1.20~6.50m,层底标高为153.60~159.96m;

第⑥层 粉质黏土:黄褐-灰褐色,硬塑状态,局部可塑偏硬,稍有光泽,中压缩性,干强度及韧性中等,该层底部含有30-40%的粗砂和砾砂,层厚不均,分布不连续。该层在拟建场地内分布连续,揭露层厚为6.50~13.10m,层底标高为144.69~148.76m;

  • 白垩系基岩(K1)

第⑦层 强风化泥岩:灰褐色,泥质结构,层状构造,主要由黏土矿物组成,该层与灰白色泥质粉砂岩互层,无规律性,胶结性差,原岩结构大部分被破坏,风化裂隙很发育,岩芯呈短柱状,干钻不易钻进,锤击易碎,有凹坑,遇水易软化、膨胀,失水易崩解,属极软岩,岩体极破碎,岩体基本质量等级Ⅴ级,该层钻孔内未发现洞穴及临空面;该层顶部分布薄层灰褐色全风化泥岩,分布不连续。该层在拟建场地内分布连续,本次钻探时该层未穿透,最大揭露厚度为9.60m。

  • 水纹概况

根据勘察结果,拟建工程场地环境水主要为地下水。

地下水类型主要为上层滞水和孔隙潜水及基岩裂隙水,上层滞水主要赋存于填土中,水量不大;孔隙潜水主要赋存于黏性土中,水量不大;基岩裂隙水主要赋存于白垩系泥岩裂隙中,水量不大。上述地下水存在一定水力联系。

勘察期间为丰水期,钻探孔深度范围内地下水实测初见水位为1.40~3.20m,标高为197.59~197.91m;地下水实测稳定水位为1.20~3.10m,标高为169.31~172.94m。

  • 现场条件

本工程地址位于德惠市德惠路以北、迎宾街以东。现场基本完成“三通一平”,已具备开工条件。

  • 技术保证条件:
    • 基坑开挖过程中保证基底无积水,随时检查排、降水系统,确保运转正常;
    • 实时监测开挖标高,严禁超挖扰动持力土层;
    • 施工过程中严格控制基坑平面位置、尺寸及边坡坡度,根据测量放线定位桩随时检测。

第三章 施工计划

  • 施工目标
    • 质量目标:达到设计要求的平面位置、尺寸、标高,满足边坡稳定要求。
    • 安全目标:坚持“安全第一,预防为主”的方针,杜绝重大伤亡事故,减少一般事故,保证安全生产。不发生重伤及以上人身事故;不发生严重机械设备损坏事故;不发生严重及以上火灾事故;不发生负有责任的交通事故。
    • 文明施工和环保目标:强化施工现场科学管理,满足现场环保要求、创一流水平的文明工地。
  • 施工顺序

土方开挖顺序:先从49-1轴挖——49-5轴,此部分为浅基础,再从49-A轴挖至49-F轴,此部位为地下室。地下室部位自西北向东南挖土。中间预留出运土通道。挖掘机停机位在土面以上,后退向下强制切土。

  • 工程的施工重点及施工措施
    • 工程的施工重点
      • 地下水位较高,井点降水的技术控制及与土方开挖之间的配合;
      • 边坡采用坡率法放坡,基坑边坡安全控制。
      • 大型施工机械数量众多、繁杂的配合管理工作;
      • 本工程为维护市容的整洁和城市安全,确保施工现场做到规范化、标准化、制度化、维护和树立企业的良好形象,为本工程施工创造一个好的环境,必须做好文明施工和环境保护。
    • 针对难点和重点的主要措施

我们经过慎重考虑、确定了各项工作的施工方案及控制措施,决定采用的主要措施有:

  • 井点降水工程与土方开挖同时进行,协调配合。随时观测地下水位情况,发现地下水位异常变化时,查明原因,调整井点降水措施。同步观察建筑物西北侧8m外的挡土墙变化,如发生变化必须及时做出相应措施。
    • 根据《建筑施工安全检查标准》、《建筑施工土石方工程安全技术规范》要求,对现场进行安全控制,并随时检查基坑边坡稳定性。发现不安全因素及时上报项目部。
    • 土方开挖工工程所含采的大型施工机械较多,施工现场设专人调度指挥。

项目部组织机构

组织机构管理职责:

  • 项目经理岗位责任制
    • 贯彻实施公司质量方针及质量目标。
    • 对所施工工程的质量及安全生产负全面责任,建立施工项目的质量保证工作体系。
    • 向公司总经理负责,加强内外协调,合理组织施工力量,保证工程质量。
    • 组织实施公司质量体系文件,负责对施工进度、工程质量及质量体系文件的执行。
    • 施工员岗位责任制
      • 全面负责单位工程的施工组织指挥和管理工作,是单位工程负责人。
      • 认真执行公司的各项规章制度,搞好单位工程施工组织管理工作。
      • 负责做好单位工程开工前的准备工作,按照施工平面图搭设好暂设工程,做好三通一平。
      • 参加图纸会审、熟悉施工图和技术要求,按设计图纸和施工组织设计组织施工。
      • 参加施工组织设计编制工作,负责按照单位工程施工进度计划组织指挥施工,确保按期竣工。
      • 负责技术质量工作,按照技术验收规范、操作规程组织指挥施工,经常检查施工操作和工程质量情况,组织班组进行自检、互检和交接检,负责组织分项工程、隐蔽工程质量检查评定验收工作。
      • 负责安全生产、按照安全操作规程和安全技术组织措施组织施工,经常对操作人员进行安全教育和检查安全生产情况,发现问题及时解决,做到安全生产。
      • 负责向班组下达进度计划、质量安全等方面的交底工作,负责验收工程质量和工人班组的考勤工作。
      • 负责施工现场管理工作,按施工平面图堆放材料、构件、工具、施工机械,做到道路畅通,场地整洁。
      • 掌握工人在施工中的思想情况,及时进行质量、安全、节约、劳动、纪律评比。
    • 技术员岗位责任制
      • 负责主持单位工程图纸学习,主持图纸会审,将发现的疑点难题及时与建设单位、设计单位研究解决并做记录,负责办理设计变更手续,贯彻按图施工的原则。
      • 负责贯彻国家及地方建筑标准、规范、规程、计量法令、法规,认真执行技术管理标准化、计量和全面质量管理规划和制度,负责施工中的技术指导,负责施工中的计量工作,解决施工中的疑难问题,对重大的技术问题要逐级上报,不得轻率处理,对违章作业有权制止,以保证工程质量。
      • 负责编制施工组织设计和技术措施,负责向工人班组做好技术交底工作。
      • 负责办理工程经济签证,参加审定预算,编制工料分析,及时准确地提出各种材料、构配件加工、运输及吊装等委托计划。
      • 负责技术管理工作,做好放线、隐蔽工程记录及各项存档的技术资料填写整理工作,做好原材料试化验与配合比设计,办理技术核定,做好图纸、技术资料积累,并在竣工时提交完整的施工技术档案。
    • 质检员岗位责任制
      • 认真学习规程、规范和施工基本知识,掌握工程质量评定标准及检评方法,不断提高业务水平。
      • 努力提高工程质量的宣传教育工作,对班组出现的工程质量问题,要摆事实、讲道理以理服人,帮助工人不断提高质量观念。
      • 认真执行工程质量三检一评制度,以及公司和上级保证质量的各项规定。
      • 质量检查坚持以预防为主,做到从开工至竣工验收的各个环节都进行严格的检查和监督,对违反施工程序和不按规范要求施工造成隐患的现象,要坚决制止。
      • 参加工程定位放线,地基鉴定和隐蔽工程的复查验收工作。
      • 认真检查各种原材料、成品和半成品构件的质量和试化验资料,对不合格的原材料禁止使用。
    • 安全员岗位责任制
      • 经常深入施工现场,检查安全生产情况,对查出的事故隐患及时向工长提出改进意见,并督促实施。
      • 在施工现场发现存在不安全因素,有权力纠正或停工。
      • 在做好安全检查的同时,还要做好安全教育工作。

第四章 施工准备

我公司全面调动人力、物力,充分做好开工前的各项准备工作,保证施工力量按计划到位。因施工工期紧张,为确保工期目标的实现,土方开挖工程以最短时间形成施工条件。确保合同工期的实现。

  • 技术准备
    • 由项目经理组织工程技术、管理人员及工人班组长认真审图,熟悉审查施工图和有关的设计资料,掌握工程特点和施工难度,做好图纸会审的前期工作,针对有关施工技术和图纸存在的疑点做好记录。
    • 及时与建设、设计、监理、地堪单位联系,做好图纸会审工作。
    • 根据施工图纸,配备与本工程相关的规范、规程及有关图集,并分发给项目部相关人员(规范、规程、图集详见编制依据)。
    • 工程技术人员认真了解地下管网及周围环境情况,明确其具体位置和深度。
    • 对进场施工班组进行全面细致的技术交底,明确要求,落实责任。
    • 根据工程的特点,经过详细的技术论证,经审批后实施,技术交底及时准确并有针对性。
  • 施工现场准备:
    • 做好施工现场道路、水、电、通讯工作,施工现场设置围墙,做好临近建筑物、道路安全防护工作。
    • 根据临电设计方案,搞好施工现场临时用电管线敷设工作;
    • 施工过程通讯联络
      • 挖掘机、运输车、信号工采用对讲机联络,以确保正确指挥。
      • 现场管理人员配备对讲机联系,对现场发生的各类事情及时进行全面沟通、协调。
  • 设备计划:

地下室土方开挖拟采用机械开挖为主,人工配合为辅的方式,配备2台加腾820的反铲挖掘机开挖土方,场内堆土配备10台自卸翻斗车。所有土方均外运。

第五章 施工工艺计划

基坑为临时性挖方边坡,待地下室施工完成后回填。拟采用坡率法施工,开挖时拆除地下室西北侧的挡土墙用于挖土时放坡。施工过程中参照《德惠市万钧•盛世豪庭(一期)岩土工程勘察报告》进行全过程监控。

  • 工艺流程

测量放线→确定开挖顺序和坡度→分段、分层均匀开挖→修坡、清基底→坡道收尾

  • 操作工艺
    • 土方开挖前,掌握施工区域内地上、地下管线情况,施工过程中采取措施进行保护;
    • 定位测量放线,确定坡顶线、坡底线,经复测及验收合格后方可开始土方施工;
    • 结合现场情况,采用沟端开挖法,反铲停于沟端,后退挖土,侧向卸土;
    • 开挖应分块、分层、分段、对称开挖,严禁超挖,开挖后及时浇筑砼垫层,并根据监测数据及时调整开挖方式;

(1)机械挖土作业时应注意保护测量控制定位桩、轴线桩、水准基桩,防止被挖土和运土机械设备碰撞,行驶破坏。

(2)基坑四周应设排水沟、集水井,场地应有一定坡度,以防止雨水浸泡基坑和场地。

(3)夜间施工应设足够的照明,防止地基、边坡超挖。

(4)基坑开挖时,在开挖全过程中应作好临时支撑保护,不得随意拆除和损害。

(5)在斜坡地段挖土时应遵循由上而下,分层开挖的顺序,以避免破坏坡脚,引起滑坡。

(6)基槽(坑)开挖完成后,应尽快进行下一道工序施工,如不能及时进行施工,应保留一层200~300㎜以上土层。在进行下一道工序前挖去,以避免基底遭受扰动,降低地基承载力。

最后30CM土方宜人工开挖,严禁超挖,应尽量减少对坑底土的扰动,挖土至坑底24小时内须施工完成混凝土垫层;混凝土垫层应延伸至围护桩边,并抓紧施工基础底板;

5.土方开挖过程中,24小时应有专人观察有无渗漏水现象;若发现有渗漏水现象,应立即采取有效措施引水、堵水,并应及时通知有关各方;

6.每层机械挖土至停机位下2米,开挖至地下室底板底标高上200㎜,为了防止机械开挖时挠动地基土层,由人工挖掘、修整至地下室底板底标高;

7.土方开挖过程中随时观测边坡变化,根据边坡稳定情况,随时修整土方边坡,必要时增加土方边坡的坡度;

8.在开挖至距离坑底500㎜以内时,测量人员抄出500㎜水平线,在基坑内抄测若干个基准点,拉通线找平。

9.马道设在基坑中间的西侧,宽度6m,坡度为15°,马道收口时采用挖掘机倒运出大部分马道土体,剩余部分采用人工清理,塔吊吊出;

10.在基坑内设专用人行走道,供施工人员进出基坑。

三.基坑降排水

 1、本基坑周边采用井点降水。

 2、坑外地表采用300mmx400mm明沟,集水井方式排水。

3、坑外周边每隔20~30m设一600x600x1000集水井,排水沟因地面变形而开裂时应及时修补,以免地表水渗漏到基壁土层中对基坑稳定产生不利影响;

4、如上部土层中水量较大,可用∅48钢管击入土中引水;
5、基坑顶外沿四周设置截水沟、排水沟,收集地表水,阻断雨水流入基坑。

6、基坑边坡挖完,及时铺彩条布防护,彩条布铺完用沙袋坠压在上边进行固定。此项主要用于防止边坡受天气影响及雨水侵蚀发生塌方事故。

四.质量控制措施

  • 开挖完成后,及时报请建设、质检、设计、勘察、监理单位进行验槽;
    • 机械挖土不得直接挖至设计标高,以免扰动地基土或发生超挖现象。对于超挖在30cm以内用垫层混凝土找平,超挖在30cm以上部分用1:3粗砂兑5—20石子分层夯填至垫层底。
    • 基坑平整完后,随时覆盖帆布 ,防止基底土水分蒸发损失或雨水浸蚀,导致基底土受到扰动,并及时进行垫层等下道工序的施工;
    • 地下室土方开挖至回填期间,定期观测土方边坡变化,发现异常情况及时处理。可重新安排挖掘机进场修整边坡
    • 土方开挖工程质量检验标准
项目机械挖方允许偏差(㎜)检验方法
标高±50水准仪
长度、宽度(由设计中心线向两边测量)+500,-150经纬仪、钢尺
边坡本方案设计要求观察
表面平整度50用2m靠尺和楔形塞尺
基底土性粉质黏土观察

第六章 施工安全保证措施

  • 安全组织措施
    • 成立以项目经理为首的安全领导小组,实行安全生产值班制度。
    • 认真贯彻执行公司和上级有关安全生产文件、规定。
    • 做好安全宣传教育工作,坚持向职工传达国家有关安全生产方针、政策、法规,组织学习国家有关安全规定。
    • 认真执行安全奖惩制度,对预防和排除事故的有功人员,实行重奖,对造成事故或险情严重的未遂事故的有关责任人,要按“四不放过”原则严肃处理。
    • 加强安全管理,组建以公司生产经理为首的公司安全部门及有关人员参加的安全保证体系,监督检查该工程施工过程中的安全生产工作。
  • 安全技术措施
    • 1. 开挖前要探明地下管网,防止发生意外事故。
    • 在距基坑边0.6m周围用中48钢管设置护身栏杆,立杆间距4m,高出自然地平1.8m,埋深0.8m。
    • 基坑上口边1m范围内不许堆土、堆料和停放机具。
    • 地下室土方开挖至回填期间,施工现场常备900㎡彩条布,用于大雨时覆盖土方边坡,防止雨水冲刷,造成边坡坍塌;
    • 基坑外施工人员不得向基坑内乱扔杂物,向基坑下传递工具时要接稳后再松手。
    • 基坑下人员休息要远离基坑边及放坡处,以防不慎。
    • 施工机械一切服从指挥,人员远离施工机械,如有必要先通知操作人员,待回应后方可接近。
    • 晚上设充足照明。电线、电器必须按有关规定安装,经验收合格方能投入使用。
    • 运输车辆进出现场必须有专人指挥。自觉洗车,严禁环境污染。
    • 建筑施工重地严禁非施工人员进入,凡进入施工现场的人员,都必须戴好安全帽。
    • 施工的操作人员,必须懂得本工种的安全技术操作规程,尊章操作。工作中禁止饮酒,打闹、冒险作业。现场内的操作人员,不准穿拖鞋、高跟鞋、赤脚和赤膊穿短裤,吸烟要到指定地点。
    • 工作前必须检查设备,确认安全后方可操作,现场所有的机电设备,要设专人负责,非操作者严禁乱开、乱动;
    • 场内按各阶段施工情况在进出口和危险区拄宣传画、色标、标牌及标语,各防护部位防护到位。各种标牌应挂齐,并挂在醒目的位置处。
  • 三. 挖掘机安全保证措施
    • 挖掘机操作人员必须听从施工管理员的指挥,遵守现场安全施工规范。挖土机进入施工现场前,进行一次全面保养,各润滑部位要换上新润滑油。
    • 挖掘机给汽车装土时,要注意车距,禁止铲斗从驾驶室上方经过,工作中铲斗下落不得过猛,以防碰撞履带板获或动臂。
    • 机械运转时禁止进行任何保养、维修等工作。
    • 挖土时铲斗不得挖掘过深,提升不能过猛,以免机械向前倾斜。
    • 机械行走时铲斗要放到距离地面1米的位置。禁止在坡道上变速或空档滑行。
    • 在高压线下通过,动臂顶端距高压线的距离大于2米。
    • 施工结束后停放在高处坚实的地面上,以免塌方发生毁机的危险。
    • 要注意随时对机械进行检查,不得“带病”运转。

第七章 应急预案

  • 编制原则

坚持“安全第一,预防为主”、“保护人员安全优先,保护环境优先”的方针,贯彻“常备不懈、统一指挥、高效协调、持续改进”的原则。更好地适应法律和经济活动的要求;保证各种应急资源处于良好的备战状态;指导应急行动按计划有序地进行;防止因应急行动组织不力或现场救援工

  • 危险辨识与风险评价

经调查和分析,本项目土石方开挖事故事件和紧急情况清单如下:

序号类  型(地点)潜 在 险情影响范围及人数
1物体打击人员伤亡影响范围小(1-2人)
2车辆伤害人员伤亡影响范围小(1-2人)
3高处坠落人员伤亡影响范围小(1-2人)
4坍塌人员伤亡、设备损坏影响范围较大(1-3人)
  • 预控措施
    • 挖土时要注意土壁的稳定性,发现有裂缝及倾坍可能时,人员应立即离开并及时处理。
    • 人工挖土,前后操作人员间距离大于2m,堆土要在1m以外,并且高度不得超过1.5m。
    • 每日或雨后必须检查土方边坡稳定情况,在确保安全的情况下继续工作。
    • 机械挖土,启动前应检查离合器、钢丝绳等,经空车试运转正常后再开始作业。
    • 机械操作中进铲不应过深,提升不应过猛。
    • 机械不得在输电线路下工作,在输电线路一侧工作,不论在任何情况下,机械的任何部位与架空输电线路的最近距离应符合安全操作规程要求。
    • 机械停在坚实的地基上,如基础过差,应采取走道板等加固措施,不得将挖土机履带与挖空的基坑平行小于2m停机、行驶。运土汽车不得靠近基坑平行行驶,防止坍方翻车。
    • 配合施工的清坡、清底工人,不准在机械回转半径下工作。
    • 向汽车上卸土应在车子停稳定后进行。禁止铲斗从汽车驾驶室上空越过。
    • 基坑四周必须设置1.5m高的护栏,设置临时人员上、下的坡道楼梯。
    • 场内道路应及时整修,确保车辆安全畅通,各种车辆应有专人负责指挥引导。
    • 在开挖基坑时,基坑周边设有排水措施,以免基坑积水,影响基坑土层结构。
    • 基坑开挖前,摸清基坑下的地质资料,以利考虑开挖过程中的意外应急措施。
    • 开挖出的土方,要严格按照组织设计堆放,不得堆于基坑外侧,以免引起地面堆载超荷引起土体位移。
    • 开挖土方必须有专人指挥。
  • 通告程序和报警系统
    • 接警与通知
      • 接警:接警部门为项目办公室。接警人接到报警后,应详细询问以下内容包括:事故发生时间、详细地点、事故性质、事故原因初步判断、简要经过介绍、人员伤亡及被困情况、现场事态控制及发展情况等,并做好记录。接警电话:项目办公室电话;办公室主任电话。
      • 通知:接警人接到报警后,向项目经理详细报告,项目经理决定是否启动应急救援预案及是否向有关应急机构、政府及上级部门发出应急救援申请。启动应急救援预案的通知应由项目办公室通知应急组织机构中各部门负责人。
    • 应急通讯联络系统

项目部应救援联络工作由项目部办公室主任负责。应急救援联络途径如下:

公安警力求救电话:110;

火警支援求救电话:119;

医疗急救求救电话:120;

  • 评价能力与资源

为保障应急体系始终处于良好的战备状态,并实现持续改进,对应急机构的设置情况、制度和工作程序的建立与执行情况、队伍的建设和人员培训与考核情况、应急装备和经费管理与使用情况等,在应急能力评价体系中实行自上而下的监督、检查和考核工作机制。

  • 保护措施程序
    • 突发紧急事故、事件发生后,安全部门立即派人赶赴事故、事件现场,负责事故、事件现场保护,计划合同部协助开展收集证据工作。因抢救人员、防止突发性事故、事件扩大以及疏通交通等原因,需要移动现场物件时,要做好标志、标记,并绘制现场简图,写出书面材料,妥善保存现场重要痕迹、物证。
    • 警报和紧急公告

当事故可能影响到周边地区,对周边地区的公众可能造成威胁时,应及时启动警报系统,向周边公众发出警报,同时通过各种途径向公众发出紧急公告,告知事故性质、对健康的影响、自我保护措施、注意事项等,以保证公众能够做出及时自我防护响应。项目经理决定是否启动警报。警报和紧急公告由派出所负责组织实施,相关部门配合。警报方式采用扩音喇叭向周边区发出警报。

  • 事态监测

发生突发性紧急事故、事件并启动应急预案后,由安全监察部、工程部各指定本部门1名人员组成事态监测小组,负责对事态的发展进行动态监测并做好过程记录。监测的内容包括:事故影响边界、气象条件,对食物、饮用水、卫生及环境的污染,爆炸危险性、受损建筑物跨塌危险性等。

  • 警戒与治安

为保障现场应急救援工作的顺利开展,在事故现场周边建立警戒区域,实施交通管制,维护好现场治安秩序,防止与救援无关人员进入事故现场,保障救援队伍、物资运输和人群疏散等的交通畅通,并避免发生不必要的伤亡。

  • 人群疏散是减少人员伤亡扩大的关键措施,也是最彻底的应急响应。应根据事故的性质、控制程度等决定是否对人员进行疏散,人员疏散由项目经理下达疏散命令,由办公室主任组织参与实施。应对被疏散的人群、数量,疏散区域、距离、路线、运输工具等进行事先考虑和准备,应考虑老弱病残等特殊人群的疏散问题。对已临时疏散的人群,要做好临时生活安置,保障必要的水、电、卫生等基本生活条件。
    • 医疗与卫生

由办公室人员联系高新区医院负责对在突发性事故中受伤的人员进行现场急救。伤情严重的人员立刻转送至工程所在地附近医院或急救中心进行抢救,转送过程中指派专人进行途中护理,急救车为转送伤员专用车辆或120急救车。

  • 应急救援人员的安全

应急救援过程中,对参与应急救援人员的安全进行周密的考虑和监视。在应急救援过程中,由项目安全部指派专人负责对参与应急救援人员的安全进行过程监控,及时发现受伤人员并组织撤换抢救。

  • 受影响区域的疏散机制

在对施工场区周边情况的摸查基础上,应确立事故现场外影响区域的疏散路线和方向,形成行之有效的疏散通道网络。应急状态时,由应急总指挥决定下达应急疏散令。保卫疏导组引领受影响区域的居民从疏散通道网络疏散、撤退。

  • 应急救援预案的培训与演练

按照应急预案的计划安排,按时组织各应急分队进行应急技能的学习和培训,适时组织应急技能的演练;通过培训和演练,及时修正应急的不足和缺陷,逐步完善应急实施机制、培训演练内容和措施。

  • 事故报告及预案的评审

事故发生后,由工程管理部负责督促事故发生单位写出《土石方开挖事故情况分析报告》,并组织相关人员评审本应急救援预案的适应性,如发现部分条款不适应时则对本预案予以修订。

第七章 劳动力计划

劳动力安排计划表

序号职务人数
1专职安全员1
2施工员1
3挖掘机司机2
4自卸汽车司机10
5铲车司机1
未经允许不得转载:春觉建筑 » 土方开挖 专项施工方案
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