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楼梯相关知识

梯井宽度 梯井:是指梯段之间形成的空隙,此空隙从顶层到底层贯通。 梯井宽度:一般为60~200mm,常用100mm左右,公共建筑不小于150mm,当梯井超过200mm时,应在梯井部位设水平防护措施。

一,规定要求:

1、住宅楼梯梯段净宽不应小于1.10米,六层及六层以下住宅,一边设栏杆的梯段净宽不应小于1.00米;

2、楼梯平台净宽不应小于梯段净宽,且不得小于1.20米,当有搬运大型物件时应适当加宽。上述内容3强制性条文内也有,不得小于1.20米强制性条文在消防或安全疏散章节内,今天找不到。上海关于“不得小于1.20米”早就执行了。根据上述文件应该是不小于大梯段宽度,而且不小于1.2米。

二,设计尺寸要求:

1、踏步尺寸及梯段坡度(楼梯的坡度在实际应用中均由踏步高宽比决定。常用坡度为1:2左右,人流量大,安全要求高的楼梯坡度应该平缓一些,反之则可陡一些,以利节约楼梯水平投影面积。)影响因素:→人行步距;→人流量的大小。(b为踏步踏面宽度,h为踏步踢面高度。为在踏步宽度一定的情况下增加行走舒适度,常将踏步出挑20—30mm,使踏步实际宽度大于其水平投影宽度。)注:住宅楼梯踏步宽不小于260mm,高不大于175mm。楼梯的坡度一般在20°—45°之间,楼梯梯段的最大坡度不宜超过38°;当坡度小于20°时,采用坡道;坡度大干45°的梯段,多用于生产性建筑,在民用建筑中常用做屋面检修梯。

2、梯段尺度(宽度及长度)宽度:(整栋建筑梯段总宽及单部楼梯梯段宽)梯段宽度应根据紧急疏散时要求通过的人流股数多少确定。每股人流按0.55+(0~0.15)m宽度考虑,且不少于两股人流。双人通行时为1100—1200mm,三人通行时为1650—1800mm。居住建筑一般为1100—1200mm,供两股人流上下。辅助楼梯至少宽900mm;公共建筑楼梯一般净宽为1400—2000mm;六层及六层以下单元式住宅中,一边设栏杆的梯段净宽不小于1000mm;高层居住建筑楼梯净宽不应小于1100mm;住宅户内楼梯,当一边临空时不应小于750mm,当两边为墙时不应小于900mm。长度:梯段长度(L)则是每一梯段的水平投影长度,其值为L=b×(N-1)。b为踏步宽;N为梯段踏步数。

3、平台宽度平台宽度分为中间平台宽度Dl和楼层平台宽度D2。对于平行和折行多跑等类型楼梯,其转向后的中间平台宽度应不小于梯段宽度,且不小于1.2m;直行多跑楼梯中间平台宽度不小于1000mm。(医院建筑不小于1800mm)对于楼层平台宽度,则应比中间平台更宽松一些,以利人流分配和停留。

4、梯井宽度所谓梯井,系指梯段之间形成的空档,此空档从顶层到底层贯通。为了安全,宽度应小,以60一200mm为宜。公共建筑梯井不宜小于150mm。当梯井宽大于500mm时,常在平台处设水平保护栏杆或其他防坠落措施。

5、栏杆扶手尺度梯段栏杆扶手高度应从踏步中心点垂直量至扶手顶面。高度影响因素:人体重心高度和楼梯坡度大小等。一般不低于900mm,供儿童使用的楼梯应在500—600mm高度增设扶手。住宅楼梯扶手高度不应小于1050mm。

6、 平台净宽不得少于楼梯的净宽。公共建筑室内外台阶踏步宽度不宜小于0.3m,踏步高度不宜大于0.15m,并不宜小于0.1m,踏步应防滑。

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