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抹灰流程

1.工艺流程 基层清理一浇水湿润一吊垂直、套方、找规矩、抹灰饼一抹水泥踢脚或墙裙—做护角抹水泥窗台—墙面充筋—抹底灰—修补预留孔洞、电箱槽、盒等—抹罩面灰 2.操作工艺

(1)基层清理

1)砖砌体:应清除表面杂物,残留灰浆、舌头灰、尘土等。

2)混凝土基体:表面凿毛或在表面洒水润湿后涂刷1:1水泥砂浆(加适量胶粘剂或界面剂)

3)加气混凝土基体:应在湿润后边涂刷界面剂,边抹强度不大于M5的水泥混合砂浆。

(2)浇水湿润 一般在抹灰前一天,用软管或胶皮管或喷壶顺墙自上而下浇水湿润,每天宜浇两次。

(3)吊垂直、套方、找规矩、做灰饼 根据设计图纸要求的抹灰质量,根据基层表面平整垂直情况,用一面墙做基准,吊垂直、套方、找规矩,确定抹灰厚度,抹灰厚度不应小于7mm。当墙面凹度较大时应分层衬平。每层厚度不大于7~9mm。操作时应先抹上灰饼,再抹下灰饼。抹灰饼时应根据室内抹灰要求,确定灰饼的正确位置,再用靠尺板找好垂直与平整。灰饼宜用1:3水泥砂浆抹成5cm见方形状。 房间面积较大时应先在地上弹出十字中心线,然后按基层面平整度弹出墙角线,随后在距墙阴角lOOmm处吊垂线并弹出铅垂线,再按地上弹出的墙角线往墙上翻引弹出阴角两面墙上的墙面抹灰层厚度控制线,以此做灰饼,然后根据灰饼充筋。

(4)抹水泥踢脚(或墙裙) 根据已抹好的灰饼充筋(此筋可以冲的宽一些,8~lOcm为宜,因此筋即为抹踢脚或墙裙的依据,同时也作为墙面抹灰的依据),底层抹l:3水泥砂浆,抹好后用大杠刮平,木抹搓毛,常温第二天用1:2.5水泥砂浆抹面层并压光,抹踢脚或墙裙厚度应符合设计要求,无设计要求时凸出墙面5~7mm为宜。凡凸出抹灰墙面的踢脚或墙裙上l51必须保证光洁顺直,踢脚或墙面抹好将靠尺贴在大面与上口平,然后用小抹子将上Vl抹平压光,凸出墙面的棱角要做成钝角,不得出现毛茬和飞棱。

(5)做护角 墙、柱间的阳角应在墙、柱面抹灰前用1:2水泥砂浆做护角,其高度自地面以上2m。其做法详见图1.1.6.2,然后将墙、柱的阳角处浇水湿润。第一步在阳角正面立上八字靠尺,靠尺突出阳角侧面,突出厚度与成活抹灰面平。然后在阳角侧面,依靠尺边抹水泥砂浆,并用铁抹子将其抹平,按护角宽度(不小于5cm)将多余的水泥砂浆铲除。第二步待水泥砂浆稍干后,将八字靠尺移至到抹好的护角面上(八字坡向外)。在阳角的正面,依靠尺边抹水泥砂浆,并用铁抹子将其抹平,按护角宽度将多余的水泥砂浆铲除。抹完后去掉八字靠尺,用素水泥浆涂刷护角尖角处,并用捋角器自上而下捋一遍,使形成钝角。

(6)抹水泥窗台 先将窗台基层清理干净,松动的砖要重新补砌好。砖缝划深,用水润透,然后用l:2:3豆石混凝土铺实,厚度宜大于2.,次日刷胶粘性素水泥一遍,随后抹l:2.5水泥砂浆面层,待表面达到初凝后,浇水养护2~3d,窗台板下口抹灰要平直,没有毛刺。

(7)墙面充筋 当灰饼砂浆达到七八成干时,即可用与抹灰层相同砂浆充筋,充筋根数应根据房间的宽度和高度确定,一般标筋宽度为。两筋间距不大于1.。当墙面高度小于3.时宜做立筋。大于3.时宜做横筋,做横向冲筋时做灰饼的间距不宜大于。

(8)抹底灰 一般情况下充筋完成2h左右可开始抹底灰为宜,抹前应先抹一层薄灰,要求将基体抹严,抹时用力压实使砂浆挤入细小缝隙内,接着分层装档、抹与充筋平,用木杠刮找平整,用木抹子搓毛。然后全面检查底子灰是否平整,阴阳角是否方直、整洁,管道后与阴角交接处、墙顶板交接处是否光滑平整、顺直,并用托线板检查墙面垂直与平整情况。散热器后边的墙面抹灰,应在散热器安装前进行,抹灰面接槎应平顺,地面踢脚板或墙裙,管道背后应及时清理干净,做到活完底清。

(9)修抹预留孔洞、配电箱、槽、盒 当底灰抹平后,要随即由专人把预留孔洞、配电箱、槽、盒周边宽的石灰砂刮掉,并清除干净,用大毛刷沾水沿周边刷水湿润,然后用l:1:4水泥混合砂浆,把洞口、箱、槽、盒周边压抹平整、光滑。

(10)抹罩面灰 应在底灰六七成干时开始抹罩面灰(抹时如底灰过干应浇水湿润),罩面灰两遍成活,厚度约,操作时最好两人同时配合进行,一人先刮一遍薄灰,另一人随即抹平。依先上后下的顺序进行,然后赶实压光,压时要掌握火候,既不要出现水纹,也不可压活,压好后随即用毛刷蘸水将罩面灰污染处清理干净。施工时整面墙不宜甩破活,如遇有预留施工洞时,可甩下整面墙待抹为宜。

—-摘自《建筑装饰工程施工工艺标准》 中国建筑工程总公司

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